Install and Configure Open LDAP

LDAP known as Light Weight Directory Access Protocol is a protocol used for accessing X.500 service containers within an enterprise known from a directory. Those who are familiar with Windows Server Administration can think of LDAP as being very similar in nature to Active Directory. It is even a widely used concept of intertwining Windows workstations into an OpenLDAP CentOS enterprise. On the other spectrum, a CentOS Linux workstation can share resources and participate with the basic functionality in a Windows Domain.

Deploying LDAP on CentOS as a Directory Server Agent, Directory System Agent, or DSA (these acronyms are all one and the same) is similar to older Novell Netware installations using the Directory Tree structure with NDS.

Brief History of LDAP

LDAP was basically created as an efficient way to access X.500 directories with enterprise resources. Both X.500 and LDAP share the same characteristics and are so similar that LDAP clients can access X.500 directories with some helpers. While LDAP also has its own directory server called slapd. The main difference between LDAP and DAP is, the lightweight version is designed to operate over TCP.

While DAP uses the full OSI Model. With the advent of the Internet, TCP/IP and Ethernet prominence in networks of today, it is rare to come across a Directory Services implantation using both DAP and native X.500 enterprise directories outside specific legacy computing models.

The main components used with openldap for CentOS Linux are −

openldap LDAP support libraries
openldap-server LDAP server
openldap-clients LDAP client utlities
openldap-devel Development libraries for OpenLDAP
compay-openldap OpenLDAP shared libraries
slapd Directory server daemon of OpenLDAP
slurpd Used for LDAP replication across an enterprise domain

Note − When naming your enterprise, it is a best practice to use the .local TLD. Using a .net or .com can cause difficulties when segregating an online and internal domain infrastructure. Imagine the extra work for a company internally using for both external and internal operations. Hence, it can be wise to have Internet resources called or Then, the local networking enterprise resources is depicted as acme.local. This will entail configuring DNS records, but will pay in simplicity, eloquence and security.

Install Open LDAP on CentOS

Install the openldap, openldap-servers, openldap-clients and migrationstools from YUM.

[root@localhost]# yum -y install openldap openldap-servers openldap-clients
migration tools
 Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
 | 3.4 kB  00:00:00
 | 2.2 MB  00:00:05
 Determining fastest mirrors
 (1/2): extras/7/x86_64/primary_db
 | 121 kB  00:00:01
 (2/2): base/7/x86_64/primary_db
 | 5.6 MB  00:00:16
 Package openldap-2.4.40-13.el7.x86_64 already installed and latest version
 Resolving Dependencies
 --> Running transaction check
 ---> Package openldap-clients.x86_64 0:2.4.40-13.el7 will be installed
 ---> Package openldap-servers.x86_64 0:2.4.40-13.el7 will be installed
 --> Finished Dependency Resolution
 | 155 kB  00:00:00
 Dependencies Resolved
Package                                Arch
Version                             Repository                        Size 
openldap-clients                    x86_64
2.4.40-13.el7                    base                                 188 k 
openldap-servers                    x86_64
2.4.40-13.el7                    base                                 2.1 M  

Transaction Summary 
Install  2 Packages

Total download size: 2.3 M 
Installed size: 5.3 M 
Downloading packages:

openldap-clients.x86_64 0:2.4.40-13.el7                                       
openldap-servers.x86_64 0:2.4.40-13.el7                                       

Now, let's start and enable the slapd service −

[root@centos]# systemctl start slapd 
[root@centos]# systemctl enable  slapd

At this point, let's assure we have our openldap structure in /etc/openldap.

root@localhost]# ls /etc/openldap/ 
certs  check_password.conf  ldap.conf  schema  slapd.d

Then make sure our slapd service is running.

root@centos]# netstat -antup | grep slapd
tcp        0      0  *              LISTEN      1641/slapd
tcp6       0      0 :::389                 :::*                   LISTEN      1641/slapd

Next, let's configure our Open LDAP installation.

Make sure our system ldap user has been created.

[root@localhost]# id ldap 
uid=55(ldap) gid=55(ldap) groups=55(ldap)

Generate our LDAP credentials.

[root@localhost]# slappasswd  
New password:  
Re-enter new password:  


We need to save the output from slappasswd.

Configure Open LDAP

Step 1 − Configure LDAP for domain and add administrative user.

First, we want to set up our openLDAP environment. Following is a template to use with the ldapmodify command.

dn: olcDatabase={2}hdb,cn=config 
changetype: modify 
replace: olcSuffix 
olcSuffix: dc=vmnet,dc=local 
dn: olcDatabase = {2}hdb,cn=config 
changetype: modify 
replace: olcRootDN 
olcRootDN: cn=ldapadm,dc=vmnet,dc=local 
dn: olcDatabase = {2}hdb,cn=config 
changetype: modify 
replace: olcRootPW 
olcRootPW: <output from slap

Make changes to: /etc/openldap/slapd.d/cn=config/olcDatabase = {1}monitor.ldif with the ldapmodify command.

[root@localhost]# ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /home/rdc/Documents/db.ldif  
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started 
SASL username: gidNumber = 0+uidNumber = 0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth 
modifying entry "olcDatabase = {2}hdb,cn=config" 
modifying entry "olcDatabase = {2}hdb,cn=config" 
modifying entry "olcDatabase = {2}hdb,cn=config" 

[root@localhost cn=config]#

Let's check the modified LDAP configuration.

root@linux1 ~]# vi /etc/openldap/slapd.d/cn=config/olcDatabase={2}hdb.ldif

[root@centos]# cat /etc/openldap/slapd.d/cn\=config/olcDatabase\=\{2\}hdb.ldif
 # AUTO-GENERATED FILE - DO NOT EDIT!! Use ldapmodify. 
 # CRC32 a163f14c
dn: olcDatabase = {2}hdb
objectClass: olcDatabaseConfig
objectClass: olcHdbConfig
olcDatabase: {2}hdb
olcDbDirectory: /var/lib/ldap
olcDbIndex: objectClass eq,pres
olcDbIndex: ou,cn,mail,surname,givenname eq,pres,sub
structuralObjectClass: olcHdbConfig
entryUUID: 1bd9aa2a-8516-1036-934b-f7eac1189139
creatorsName: cn=config
createTimestamp: 20170212022422Z
olcSuffix: dc=vmnet,dc=local
olcRootDN: cn=ldapadm,dc=vmnet,dc=local
olcRootPW:: e1NTSEF1bUVyb1VzZTRjc2dkYVdGaDY0T0k = 
entryCSN: 20170215204423.726622Z#000000#000#000000 
modifiersName: gidNumber = 0+uidNumber = 0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
modifyTimestamp: 20170215204423Z


As you can see, our LDAP enterprise modifications were successful.

Next, we want to create an self-signed ssl certificate for OpenLDAP. This will secure the communication between the enterprise server and clients.

Step 2 − Create a self-signed certificate for OpenLDAP.

We will use openssl to create a self-signed ssl certificate. Go to the next chapter, Create LDAP SSL Certificate with openssl for instructions to secure communications with OpenLDAP. Then when ssl certificates are configured, we will have completed our OpenLDAP enterprise configuration.

Step 3 − Configure OpenLDAP to use secure communications with certificate.

Create a certs.ldif file in vim with the following information −

dn: cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcTLSCertificateFile
olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/openldap/certs/yourGeneratedCertFile.pem

dn: cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile
olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/openldap/certs/youGeneratedKeyFile.pem

Next, again, use the ldapmodify command to merge the changes into the OpenLDAP configuration.

[root@centos rdc]# ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL  -H ldapi:/// -f certs.ldif
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber = 0+uidNumber = 0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
modifying entry "cn=config"


Finally, let's test our OpenLADP configuration.

[root@centos]# slaptest -u 
config file testing succeeded 

Step 4 − Set up slapd database.

cp /usr/share/openldap-servers/DB_CONFIG.example /var/lib/ldap/DB_CONFIG && 
chown ldap:ldap /var/lib/ldap/*

Updates the OpenLDAP Schema.

Add the cosine and nis LDAP schemas.

ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/schema/cosine.ldif
ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/schema/nis.ldif
ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/schema/inetorgperson.ldif

Finally, create the enterprise schema and add it to the current OpenLDAP configuration.

Following is for a domain called vmnet.local with an LDAP Admin called ldapadm.

dn: dc=vmnet,dc=local
dc: vmnet
objectClass: top
objectClass: domain

dn: cn=ldapadm ,dc=vmnet,dc=local
objectClass: organizationalRole
cn: ldapadm
description: LDAP Manager

dn: ou = People,dc=vmnet,dc=local
objectClass: organizationalUnit
ou: People

dn: ou = Group,dc=vmnet,dc=local 
objectClass: organizationalUnit 
ou: Group

Finally, import this into the current OpenLDAP schema.

[root@centos]# ldapadd -x -W -D "cn=ldapadm,dc=vmnet,dc=local" -f ./base.ldif
 Enter LDAP Password:
adding new entry "dc=vmnet,dc=local"

adding new entry "cn=ldapadm ,dc=vmnet,dc=local"

adding new entry "ou=People,dc=vmnet,dc=local"

adding new entry "ou=Group,dc=vmnet,dc=local"


Step 5 − Set up an OpenLDAP Enterprise Users.

Open vim or your favorite text editor and copy the following format. This is setup for a user named "entacct" on the "vmnet.local" LDAP domain.

dn: uid=entacct,ou=People,dc=vmnet,dc=local 
objectClass: top
objectClass: account 
objectClass: posixAccount 
objectClass: shadowAccount 
cn: entacct 
uid: entacct 
uidNumber: 9999 
gidNumber: 100 
homeDirectory: /home/enyacct 
loginShell: /bin/bash 
gecos: Enterprise User Account 001 
userPassword: {crypt}x 
shadowLastChange: 17058 
shadowMin: 0 
shadowMax: 99999 
shadowWarning: 7

Now import the above files, as saved, into the OpenLdap Schema.

[root@centos]# ldapadd -x -W -D "cn=ldapadm,dc=vmnet,dc=local" -f entuser.ldif 
 Enter LDAP Password:
adding new entry "uid=entacct,ou=People,dc=vmnet,dc=local" 


Before the users can access the LDAP Enterprise, we need to assign a password as follows −

ldappasswd -s password123 -W -D "cn=ldapadm,dc=entacct,dc=local" -x "uid=entacct 

-s specifies the password for the user

-x is the username to which password updated is applied

-D is the *distinguished name" to authenticate against LDAP schema.

Finally, before logging into the Enterprise account, let's check our OpenLDAP entry.

[root@centos rdc]# ldapsearch -x cn=entacct -b dc=vmnet,dc=local
 # extended LDIF
 # LDAPv3
 # base <dc=vmnet,dc=local> with scope subtree
 # filter: cn=entacct
 # requesting: ALL 
 # entacct, People, vmnet.local 
dn: uid=entacct,ou=People,dc=vmnet,dc=local 
objectClass: top 
objectClass: account 
objectClass: posixAccount 
objectClass: shadowAccount 
cn: entacct 
uid: entacct 
uidNumber: 9999 
gidNumber: 100 
homeDirectory: /home/enyacct 
loginShell: /bin/bash 
gecos: Enterprise User Account 001 
userPassword:: e2NyeXB0fXg= 
shadowLastChange: 17058 
shadowMin: 0 
shadowMax: 99999 
shadowWarning: 7

Converting things like /etc/passwd and /etc/groups to OpenLDAP authentication requires the use of migration tools. These are included in the migrationtools package. Then, installed into /usr/share/migrationtools.

[root@centos openldap-servers]# ls -l /usr/share/migrationtools/
total 128
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  2652 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  2950 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  2946 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  3011 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  3006 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  3164 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  3146 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  5267 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  7468 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  3278 Jun  9  2014
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  2608 Jun  9  2014

Step 6 − Finally, we need to allow access to the slapd service so it can service requests.

firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=ldap 
firewall-cmd --reload

Configure LDAP Client Access

Configuring LDAP client access requires the following packages on the client: openldap, open-ldap clients, and nss_ldap.

Configuring LDAP authentication for client systems is a bit easier.

Step 1 − Install dependent packeges −

# yum install -y openldap-clients nss-pam-ldapd

Step 2 − Configure LDAP authentication with authconfig.

authconfig --enableldap --enableldapauth --ldapserver= --
ldapbasedn="dc=vmnet,dc=local" --enablemkhomedir --update

Step 3 − Restart nslcd service.

systemctl restart  nslcd
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